The Growing Timeline of AI Milestones

The Growing Timeline of AI Milestones

The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

The tech we use nowadays is the outcome of a number of artificial intelligence milestones achieved by many unsung heroes. We travelled back in time and compiled a list of all significant artificial intelligence achievements that have allowed us to enjoy our current lifestyle. Let’s take a look at AI evolution over time. The timeline below highlights AI milestones that have been achieved throughout history. These achievements can be found in all areas of Artificial Intelligence. Because this is a growing timeline, new milestones will be updated on a regular basis.


Feb 1998

Furby Toy Robot Developed By Dave Hampton and Caleb Chung

Furby Toy Robot

It is an electronic robot developed by America as a pet toy for kids. It is programmed with facial movements and voice recognition. The early version of the Furby toy robot was able to speak in “Furbish,” but later it was programmed with the English language. In 2012, the Furby..Read more

Jul 1997

Sojourner Rover At NASA IS Proposed By Judith Resnik

Sojourner Rover At NASA

Sojourner rover at NASA is a Mars rover designed with automatic features. It was the first vehicle with wheels to use on another planet. Sojourner was used in the Mars Pathfinder mission and to conduct various experiments, it was designed with hardware and afront and rear cameras. The rover used..Read more

Jun 1997

NOMAD, First space rover was launched for experiment


NOMAD is an unmanned space rover robot for remote control exploration. It was developed at the cost of $1.6 million. It has the size of a small car and weighs 550Kg. It was used to capture visuals on other planets. Read more June, 1997

May 1997

Long Short-Term Memory Developed By Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber

Long Short-Term Memory

Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is widely used in different areas of deep learning. It is developed using a neural network with recursive architecture; that’s why it also maintains a feedback connection. LSTM can process singular data units (such as images) and sequential data units (such as speech or video), for..Read more

May 1997

Deep Blue Computer Program Developed By IBM

Deep Blue Computer Program

A Deep Blue computer program is made to play a chess game. It was able to win both a chess match and a chess game. It is designed using an alpha-beta search algorithm and custom VLSI chips for the execution of the algorithm. Deep Blue defeated Kasparov (man champion) in..Read more

Mar 1996

BackRub Started Indexing Backlinks Of Webpages


Larry Page and Sergey Brin created BackRub (former name of Google Search algorithm). The greatest milestone in the history of search engine and search engine optimization (SEO). Page and Brin believed that backlinks are strong attributes in ranking specific pages. Read more March, 1996    

Jun 1995

ALICE Chatbot Developed By Richard Wallace

ALICE Chatbot

ALICE Chatbot (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity), also known as Alicebot. It is an N.L.P. chatterbot. It starts a conversation with a man by using rules of heuristical pattern matching for input received from humans. Alice is an open-source program, and it had won three awards due to its effective..Read more

Aug 1994

Chinook Checkers Program Developed By Jonathan Schaeffer, Rob Lake, Paul Lu, Martin Bryant, and Norman Treloar

Chinook Checkers Program

The Chinook Checkers Program is designed to play checkers, and it also had won the championship against a human player. The program’s algorithmic design consists of an open book that holds the library of all move functions, an algorithm for deep search, a process to evaluate a good move, and..Read more

Apr 1994

WebCrawler Developed By Brian Pinkerton


The very first full-page web spider (WebCrawler) was developed. It was the first search engine that was powered by web crawler technology. It could provide a full-text search.  Read more April, 1994  

Jan 1994

RBSE First web Spider Introduced By NASA

RBSE First web Spider

Using Oracle, C, and Wais, NASA developed RBSE First web Spider whose sole purpose was indexing and statistical analysis. Read more January, 1994

Nov 1992

TD Gammon Program Developed By Gerald Tesauro

TD Gammon Program

TD Gammon Program is a computer backgammon program based on an artificial neural net, and temporal-difference learning is used to train it. Its playing level is one step lower than that of top backgammon human players as this program has a self-play feature, so it can be used to explore..Read more

Feb 1991

Python Developed By Guido Van Rossum


It is a general-purpose, open-source interpreted high-level programming language. It is the easiest language to learn and best for analytics and data science. Google is built on Python. If we read AI milestones in the 20th century, it is one of the biggest milestones of the 90s. Read more February,..Read more

Nov 1990

Cleverbot Chatbot Developed By Rollo Carpenter

Cleverbot Chatbot

Cleverbot Chatbot is a web application developed using AI algorithms to establish a conversation with humans. The bot doesn’t operate on pre-programming techniques. Instead, it runs on human input: a text input is given into a box, and the system searches for the phrases or keywords that match with information...Read more

Sep 1990

The Cog Project By MIT

The Cog Project

The Cog project was used for the humanoid robot of type upper-torso. The project’s goal was to explore robotics-related issues to development and physical structures, motor systems and interconnection of multiple sensors, and environmental interaction. There are two goals of the project: (i) create a prototype that is flexible for..Read more

Sep 1990

First Search Engine Archie Was Launched

First search engine Archie

Alan Emtage developed the first search engine Archie, for locating files on public FTP archives. It can be called a pre-Web search engine. It was different from modern search engines as modern search engines require directory submission from the public. Read more September, 1990  

Jun 1990

Elephants Don’t Play Chess Published By Rodney Brooks

Elephants Don't Play Chess

Elephants Don’t Play Chess was an attempt towards adopting new strategies in the field of AI to create robots and intelligence systems while keeping interaction with the going physical changes in the environment. Brooks argued that there are fundamentals flaws found in the symbol system hypothesis, which is the base..Read more

Mar 1990

Nouvelle AI Described By Rodney Brooks

Nouvelle AI

The main difference between nouvelle AI and classical AI is that the former focuses on the development of robots with intelligence characteristics like insects. It deals with the intelligence required to interact with the real-world, and it operates using sensors rather than internal models. Well-known examples are Freddy and Shakey..Read more

Dec 1989

ALVINN Neural Network Developed By Dean Pomerleau

ALVINN Neural Network

Because of variability and noise, Autonomous device navigation is always a major problem in robotics and vision. But ALVINN (An Autonomous Land Vehicle in a Neural Network) provided a solution to this problem. ALVINN neural network uses a camera to take images and a laser device to find the range..Read more

Oct 1989

A Backpropagation Algorithm By Yann LeCun at AT&T Bell Labs

A Backpropagation Algorithm

Yann LeCun worked remarkably to apply a backpropagation algorithm in different areas. For example, neural networks (sharing capacity and I/O capacity such as for 16×16 image output are ten units), search database to read the postal ZipCode found on envelopes, and design Architecture for a network at layers level. To..Read more

Nov 1988

Jabberwacky Chatbot Developed By Rollo Carpenter

Jabberwacky Chatbot

Jabberwacky chatbot was developed to provide simulation for a human chat with entertaining and interesting features. It is considered one of the first attempts to use human interaction for the development of AI to pass the Turing Test. The developer said that this bot could be embedded into objects like..Read more

Aug 1988

Language Translation Statistical Approach Published By IBM TJ Watson

Language Translation

A language translation approach for automatic translation of natural languages is developed. Statistical techniques are used to extract information from databases that are large enough. The method works by translating available large pair of related texts, which can be of different languages. The step for translation is: (i) Divide the..Read more

Jun 1988

Probabilistic Reasoning In Intelligent Systems Published By Judea Pearl

Probabilistic Reasoning

Pearl has described the developed foundation of computational and symbolic processing of uncertain information. Using Bayesian networks, he defined complex probability models and designed algorithms to build the inference system for the models. This piece of probabilistic reasoning brought a great revolution in AI as well as in the natural..Read more

Sep 1986

HAM-ANS Dialog System By Wolfgang Hoeppner, Katharina Morik, and Heinz Marburger

HAM-ANS Dialog System

HAM-ANS dialog system is designed to develop a program system like a database that can understand natural language to handle other software products. When it receives natural language sentences, the program system activates, and communication with output is possible in natural language. This process also reduces the role of the..Read more

Jul 1986

Robotic Van Developed By Mercedes-Benz

Robotic Van

An autonomous robotic van with sensors, cameras, and neural networks for steering controls was developed to run without a human driver. It has a speed range of 39mph (63 km/h) on traffic-free streets while operates at a speed of 1.9mph (3.1 km/h) for complex paths with slopes, vegetation, and large..Read more

Sep 1985

CADUCEUS Expert System By Harry Pople

CADUCEUS Expert System

CADUCEUS expert system that was developed to improve the MYCIN export system. It makes use of the Inference Engine, and it can diagnose 1000 diseases of different categories. The CADUCEUS’s main intentions are the complexities of blood poisoning, and it also explores the other internal disorders caused by a major..Read more

Aug 1985

NETtalk Neural Network Developed By Terrence Sejnowski and Charles Rosenberg

NETtalk Neural Network

NETtalk neural network was developed to explore the effective mechanisms to learn the correct English text when pronounced. The developers found that the process required a complex tool that needs various parts of the human brain. NETtalk is not able to recognize visual letters at the image process stage. Read..Read more

May 1985

Aaron Program Developed By Harold Cohen

Aaron Program

Cohen developed the Aaron program to create artistically original images. The goal was to find suitable conditions so that marks set functions effectively creates an image. Initially, Aaron contained a LISP code of size 1.5MB and made abstract pictures & drawings. With machines, Aaron created artwork with physical features such..Read more

Sep 1984

Second AI Winter

Second AI Winter

The second AI winter event occurred during 1984-1993 after the first AI winter. Researchers warned about the disappointments in AI. It became difficult to maintain expert systems due to high costs. The government stopped funding AI because it had a fear of not getting it back. John McCarthy criticized expert..Read more

Aug 1984

Mortgage Loan Advisor: An Expert System For Loan Management

Mortgage Loan Advisor

Mortgage Loan Advisor was developed to facilitate the banks to manage loan queries. Tasks related to Loans performed by the system are: (i) Check that specified conditions are satisfied before granting a loan to the client. (ii) Define a specified period for repayment after observing the borrower’s statistics (iii) The..Read more

Jan 1984

LISP Machine Development And Marketing

LISP Machine

A computer system that runs on an operating system and programs written using LISP is called a LISP Machine. The commercial business vendors provided such machine s because the machines available in that era were not too much strength to operate with complex software used in AI Development of machines..Read more